The only important number when water tests

Water testing is work to do to find out what the "problem" of water sources, like reading the results table ultrasound, patient's blood test. Based on the results of tests we can easily choose the technology and equipment for water treatment.

The index needs to know when water tests

The index needs to know when water tests

Loc nuoc Viet An index summaries Please note in the table the following tests:

1. Flavors

The underground well water: the smell of rotten eggs is due to the H2S gas, the result of the process of decomposition of organic substances in the ground and dissolves into the Lode. Fishy smell of iron and manganese.

Surface water (rivers, streams, ponds): fishy smell of algae is caused by the presence of algae and microorganisms. In this case, the water usually has blue. Tap water: th
e smell of antiseptic chemicals (chlorine) the leftovers back in the water.

Other exotic flavors will cause discomfort when using water. Depending on the kind of flavors that have appropriate treatment such as use of chemicals kill algae in ponds, filtration, sedimentation capacitors glue adsorption by activated carbon, …

2. Coloring

The yellow color of iron and manganese compounds.

Green algae, organic compounds.

The country has a high color often cause discomfort in terms of perception. With the process such as tub ozôn gas, preliminary chlorination, sedimentation, filtering capacitors glue can decrease the temperature of the water. It should be noted, when water supplies are due to organic compounds, Chlorine usage can create new substances are potentially carcinogenic trihalomethane.

3. Ph

Source of water has a pH of 7 is often contain many ion > group of carbonate and bicarbonate (due to flow through multistage rock). Source of water has a pH of 7 is usually contains several original ion < acid.

The most conspicuous evidence of association between the pH and the health of the user is it damage tooth enamel

the pH of the water corrosive related equipment, plumbing and water containers. In particular, in the low pH environment, the ability of Chlorine disinfection. However, at pH 8.5 if there is domestic > organic compounds, disinfection with chlorine easy form trihalomethane compounds cause cancer.

According to the standard, the pH of the water use for households is 6.0-8.5 and of drinking water is 6.5-8.5.

4. Turbidity

Turbidity is measured quantity content hovering in the water, usually due to the presence of colloids, clay, algae and micro-organisms.

Cloudy water to cause discomfort for the user and potentially microbiological contamination. Clean water standards prescribed turbidity is under 5NTU, but limited to a maximum of only drinking water is 2 NTU. The procedures of handling such as glue, capacitors, filter contributes to reduce the turbidity of the water.

5. Alkalinity

Alkalinity of the water is due to bicarbonate, carbonate and hydroxide ions. In the chemical composition of water, alkalinity is related to other norms such as pH, hardness and total mineral content. The determination of alkalinity of water help to quantify chemical in the glue process convergence, water softening as well as handling of corrosion.

Currently, there is no specific evidence relating between alkalinity and the health of the user. Usually, the water used for dining should have lower alkalinity 100 mg/l.

6. The hardness

The hardness is measured quantities of multiple cations are Valence in water, calcium and magnesium ions. Surface water often do not have high hardness as groundwater. Depending on the hardness of the water people are divided into the following categories:

* The hardness from 0-50 mg/l-soft Water >

* The hardness from 50-150 mg/l-Water steam, rigid >

* The hardness from 150-300mg/l-> hard water

* > 300mg hardness/l-very hard Water >

Hard water typically need more SOAP than to create foam, or cause the phenomenon plays a white residue in the equipment module, hot water pipes, cooling equipment or boilers. In contrast, hard water often does not cause corrosion phenomenon of the pipes and equipment. Clean water standards, specified hardness smaller than 350 mg/l. For dining, water hardness less than 300 mg/l. However, when the hardness in excess of 50 mg/l, in the cooking equipment has appeared the white residue.

As part of the hardness, calcium and magnesium are the two key factors that often are added to the body via food. However, people with kidney disease risk should limit the absorption of calcium and magnesium in high concentrations.

Can eliminate the hardness by ion exchange method.

7. The total dissolved solids (TDS)

TDS is the measured quantity of dissolved solids contained in the water, or of minerals.

Clean water standards rules TDS is under 1000 mg/l. TDS regulations drinking water standards is under 500 mg/l.

8. Oxidation level (organic)

The oxidation levels are used to assess the extent of pollution of the water source. There are two methods for determining the oxidation depending on the chemicals used is KMnO4 method and K2CrO7.

The standard of clean water oxygenation level specified by KMnO4) less than 4 mg/l. The drinking water standard defined degrees of oxidation (by KMnO4) less than 2 mg/l.

9. Aluminum

Aluminum is the main ingredient in mineral rocks, clay. Aluminum is used in the production of semiconductors, dyes, paints and especially chemical flocculation in water treatment. Mining water from contaminated land and low pH often has the alum alumina high.

Aluminum does not cause the disorder metabolic mechanism, however related to the Alzheimei disease and increased aging process. Standard drinking water aluminum concentrations specified is smaller than 0.2 mg/l.

10. Iron

Due to the iron ion readily oxidized into two hydroxyt, three iron precipitate and should at least exist in iron surface. For groundwater, in terms of gas, iron deficiency usually exist as Fe2 + ions, and dissolved in water. When do glance, two iron will transform into iron, appear to precipitate iron hydroxyt three are yellow, easy. In the case of water resources have more organic matter, iron can exist in the form of sealant (organic complexes) are very difficult to handle.

In addition, water has a low pH will cause corrosion phenomena of pipelines and containers, increase the iron content in the water.

Iron is not harmful for the body. When the high iron content will make the water taste fishy, gold color, turbidity and temperature increase should be difficult to use. Clean water and drinking water standards are specified iron content less than 0.5 mg/l.

11. Manganese

Manganese is often exist in the same country with iron but with less content. When in the water there is usually a layer of manganese residue clinging close up black and the bottom of the tank.

Manganese has a very low toxicity and does not cause cancer. In higher concentrations of 0.15 mg/l may produce unpleasant tastes, tarnish the clothes. Clean water and drinking water standards are prescribed manganese content of less than 0.5 mg/l.

12. Arsenic (arsenic)

Due to seep through the different geology, ground water often contains arsenic is more than surface water. In addition arsenic present in the source water when contaminated industrial waste water, pesticides.

When arsenic contaminated, potentially cancer-causing skin and lungs. Clean water standards regulating arsenic less than 0.05 mg/l. Regulation of arsenic drinking water standard of less than 0.01 mg/l.

13. Cadmium

Due to seep through the different geology, ground water often contains cadmium content of more than surface water. Also see Cadmium in sewage contaminated water sources, industrial mining, landfill leak water. Cadmium can appear in zinc-coated steel pipes if happens the corrosive phenomena.

Cadmium has adverse impact on the kidneys. When contaminated with vomit in the high mữa. Cadmium regulated drinking water standards less than 0.003 mg/l.

14. Chromium

Chromium present in the source water when contaminated industrial wastewater, mining, electroplating, leather, dye, paper and ceramics production.

Valence of chromium 6 stronger toxic Chromium trivalent and adverse impact on the organs such as the liver, kidneys, respiratory organs. Chromium poisoning can cause bleeding, skin inflammation, boils. Chromium is classified as toxic, group 1 (likely carcinogens for humans and pets). Regulation chromium drinking water standards less than 0.05 mg/l.

15. Copper

Copper is present in the water due to corrosion on the pipe and equipment and instruments made of copper or brass. The algae removal chemicals are widely used on the ponds also increases copper content in water supplies. Waste water from the plant metallurgy, electroplating, tanning, manufacturing insecticides, herbicides or film also contributed to the increase in the amount of copper in the water source.

Copper does not accumulate in the body to toxic levels. In concentrations of 1-2 mg/l was making water taste unpleasant, and could not be when drinking high concentration from 5-8 mg/l. Clean water and drinking water standards are prescribed copper content less than 2 mg/l.

16. Lead

In natural water source just found lead concentrations of 0.4-0.8 mg/l. However due to sewage contamination or industrial pipeline corrosion phenomena should be able to detect lead in drinking water at the higher level.

When high blood lead levels can cause brain damage, neurological disorders, muscle weakness, destruction. Lead can accumulate in the body to high levels and toxic. The standard of drinking water and clean water are regulated for lead content of less than 0.01 mg/l.

17. Zinc

Zinc rarely have in the country, with the exception of contaminated waste water from the source of the ore mining area.

No toxic zinc for the human body, but in concentrations of 5 mg/l > made milky white water. The standard of drinking water and clean water are the zinc content of regulations/3mg < l.

18. Nickel

Nickel is rarely present in the water, except that contaminated waste water from the source of electronic industries, ceramics, steel manufacturing, battery.

Nickel has a low toxicity and does not accumulate in the tissues. The standard of drinking water and clean water are regulated nickel content less than 0, 02mg/l.

19. Mercury

The mercury rarely exist in the country. However mercury salts used in mining technology has the ability to contaminate water sources.

When mercury poisoning of the body such as the kidney and nervous system will suffer from the disorder. Clean water and drinking water standards are prescribed mercury content of less than 0.001 mg/l.

20. Molybdenum

At least the presence of molybdenum in water. Molybdenum in the effluent have commonly electricity, petroleum, glass, ceramics and dyes.

Molybdenum is easy absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract and attack the organs such as the liver, the kidneys. Molybdenum regulations drinking water standards less than 0.07 mg/l.

21. Chloride

Water resources have high Chloride concentrations are often due to the phenomenon of osmosis from sea water or by contamination from waste water vapors such as zinc, oil exploration, paper production, production of water from softening process.

Chloride is not harmful to health. The maximum limit of chloride are chosen according to the sodium content in the water, when combined with calcium chloride will cause unpleasant salty flavour. Clean water standards regulating smaller Chloride 300 mg/l. Chloride regulation drinking water standards is under 250 mg/l.

22. Ammonium-Nitrate-Nitrite

The common form of nitrogen compounds, ammonium nitrate, nitrite, is the result of the process of decomposition of organic substances or pollution from sewage. In this group, is the most toxic substance ammonium for fish and other aquatic species. Nitrides are formed from the reaction of organic nitrogen and ammonium decomposition and with the participation of the bacteria. Then the nitrite into nitrate oxidation will be. In addition, nitrates are also present in the source water is caused by waste water from chemical industry, from fields that use chemical fertilizers, water leak rainwater flows overflowed, landfill. The presence of nitrogen compounds in the chemical composition of the water shows signs of pollution of water resources.

23. Sulfate

Sulfate is usually present in water is caused by the oxidation of organic substances containing sulphur or due to pollution from industry waste water source textile, tanning, metallurgy, paper production. Water pollution often contains high concentrations of sulfate alum.

200mg/l sulphate concentrations in the water has higher content, astringency can cause diarrhe
a. Drinking water standards rules sulfate is under 250 mg/l.

24. Fluoride

Surface water often have low fluorine 0.2 mg/l. With regard to groundwater, when flowing through the limestone, dolomite, clay, fluoride concentrations in water may be as high as 8-9 mg/l.

The research results showed that when the concentrations of fluoride reaches 2 mg/l was doing black teeth. If using a regular source of water with high Fluorine than 4 mg/l can make the bone folder. Flo has no cancer-causing expression. Standard drinking water fluoride concentration specified in the range 0.7-1.5 mg/l.

25. Cyanide

Cyanide present in the source water due to pollution from sewage type plastic industry, electroplating, metallurgy, chemicals, synthetic fibers.

Cyanide highly poisonous, often attacking the organs such as the lungs, the skin, the digestive tract. The standard of drinking water and clean water are regulated xuanua content less than 0.07 mg/l.

26. Coliform

Coliform bacteria (Escherichia Coli is popular-e. Coli) are often contained in the digestive system of the person. The discovery of the bacteria Escherichia Coli shows signs of water sources pollution.

The standard of drinking water and clean water are the provisions of e. Coliform 0. Total Coliform in private clean water be allowed 50 bacteria/100 ml.

(Handbook of Drinking Water Quality-Standards & Control)

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